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ยท 9 min read
Rotem Tamir

Database schema migrations are an essential part of software development, allowing teams to evolve and refine their application's data model over time. However, with schema changes, it's not always smooth sailing, and migration failures can be disruptive and challenging to resolve.

As much as we'd like to believe that our schema migrations will be executed flawlessly, the reality is that things can and do go wrong. Whether it's due to human error, unforeseen complications, or technical constraints, migration failures can be a significant source of frustration for development teams. Anticipating and preparing for these issues is essential to minimize their impact on your project.

In this blog post, we'll explore the common causes of migration failures and demonstrate how Atlas can help you quickly recover from such failures and easily get back on track.

Atlas: Optimized for MTTRโ€‹

MTTR (mean-time-to-recovery) is a widely accepted metric for measuring the performance of teams delivering software. MTTR measures the mean time it takes to restore service when a production issue occurs. In the context of schema migrations, this would mean measuring how long it takes a team to detect, triage and resolve failures of schema migrations.

Contrary to existing tools, Atlas was designed with failure in mind and comes with some useful features to help your team get out of the mud if (and when) a schema migration fails. By utilizing these features, your team can greatly reduce MTTR for schema change related failures.

Why do migrations fail?โ€‹

Let's begin our discussion of troubleshooting schema migration failures by mentioning the common causes for migration failures.

  1. Syntax errors - A surprisingly common cause for migration failures is syntax errors in the migration script: the migration tool tries to execute a statement and the database rejects it, causing the migration to fail. For example, adding an unnecessary comma at the end of a list:

    mysql> create table users (   id int,   name varchar(255), );

    ERROR 1064 (42000): You have an error in your SQL syntax; check the manual that corresponds to your MySQL server version for the right syntax to use near ')' at line 1
  2. Schema dependent changes - Incorrect assumptions about the current state of the target database can lead to failed migrations when those assumptions are not met. For example, trying to create a table that was already created:

mysql> create table users (   id int,   name varchar(255) );
ERROR 1050 (42S01): Table 'users' already exists
  1. Data-dependent changes - If migrations manipulate data or modify constraints, the operation may fail depending on existing data in the target database. For example, adding a NOT NULL constraint to a column may fail if that column contains null values:

    mysql> alter table users modify bio varchar(100) not null;
    ERROR 1138 (22004): Invalid use of NULL value
  2. Lost connection - In some cases, and depending on the state of the target database and network connectivity, the client executing the migration commands against the database may lose the connection to the database, causing the migration to fail:

    mysql> create table t1 (c int);
    No connection. Trying to reconnect...
    ERROR 2003 (HY000): Can't connect to MySQL server on '' (61)
    Can't connect to the server

Troubleshooting failures with Atlasโ€‹

In the next section, we review the capabilities that Atlas provides operators to troubleshoot and resolve migration failures:

  • Status observability - how to understand the current state of the system after a failure.
  • Statement level granularity - how to recover from partial migration failures.
  • Declarative roll-forward - how to use Atlas to automatically create a recovery plan from a failure.

Status observabilityโ€‹

The first step to solving any failure is being able to triage the issue at hand. To assist operators in diagnosing the current status of a target database, Atlas provides the migrate status command which can be used to understand the current situation. For instance, suppose we tried to run the following migration which contains a drop table statement for a non-existing table:

create table users (
id int,
name varchar(255)

drop table non_existing;

The migration will fail with the following error:

Error 1051 (42S02): Unknown table 'test.non_existing'

In many cases, the migration will not be applied from our workstation, so we may not have access to the execution logs. To check the migration status, we can run the migrate status command:

atlas migrate status -u mysql://root:pass@/test

Atlas will print:

Migration Status: PENDING
-- Current Version: 20230409114917 (1 statements applied)
-- Next Version: 20230409114917 (1 statements left)
-- Executed Files: 2 (last one partially)
-- Pending Files: 1

Last migration attempt had errors:
-- SQL: drop table non_existing;
-- ERROR: Error 1051 (42S02): Unknown table 'test.non_existing'

Observe that Atlas prints out some useful information:

  • Migration Status: PENDING - There are pending migrations.
  • -- Executed Files: 2 (last one partially) - the last file was partially applied.
  • The last migration failed with an error: ERROR: Error 1051 (42S02): Unknown table 'test.non_existing'

Statement-level granularityโ€‹

As we saw in the example above, in cases where migrations partially fail (only some statements succeed) our database schema will be in a limbo state of sorts, it's neither in the previous nor the next version. To keep implementations simple, in the past many migration tools have opted to treat migration files as opaque blobs, meaning they cannot provide any assistance in cases of partial failures.

Atlas, on the other hand, parses the migration files prior to executing them and can therefore provide information about failures on the statement (rather than the file) level. This is great for observability, but it is even more meaningful when trying to resolve issues.

Consider a situation similar to the one we presented above, where a migration fails halfway because of a constraint violation:

CREATE TABLE biographies (
user_id INT NOT NULL,
bio TEXT,
FOREIGN KEY (user_id) REFERENCES users(id)

ALTER TABLE users modify bio varchar(100) not null;

In cases where the column already contains null values, this migration will partially fail:

  -- migrating version 20230409123337
-> CREATE TABLE biographies (
user_id INT NOT NULL,
bio TEXT,
FOREIGN KEY (user_id) REFERENCES users(id)
-> alter table users modify bio varchar(100) not null;
Error 1138 (22004): Invalid use of NULL value

This can be solved by backfilling the table with non-null values in the relevant column. To do this, we can update our migration script to contain this UPDATE statement:

CREATE TABLE biographies (
user_id INT NOT NULL,
bio TEXT,
FOREIGN KEY (user_id) REFERENCES users(id)

update users set bio='' where bio is null;

alter table users modify bio varchar(100) not null;

Here's the good part: because Atlas operates at the statement level and remembers that we've already successfully applied the first CREATE TABLE statement, it will resume from where it stopped. If we run:

atlas migrate apply -u mysql://root:pass@/test

Atlas runs to completion:

Migrating to version 20230409123337 from 20230409123337 (1 migrations in total):

-- migrating version 20230409123337
-> update users set bio='' where bio is null;
-> alter table users modify bio varchar(100) not null;
-- ok (48.440861ms)

-- 56.051791ms
-- 1 migrations
-- 2 sql statements

Declarative roll-forwardโ€‹

One of the things people experienced with existing tools immediately notice when they start working with Atlas is the absence of down migrations. Many migration tools expect users to plan a down migration parallel to every migration, which contains the statements needed to roll back the schema changes for a version. In theory, this is done to allow users to seamlessly return to a previous version in case things go wrong with the new one.

Our decision to omit down migrations from Atlas and deserves its own lengthy discussion, but limited to the examples we just showed it is easy to demonstrate that attempting to execute down migrations in cases of partial failures may fail themselves, since they rely on the database being at the state where all statements executed successfully.

Instead of down migrations, Atlas provides an alternative strategy for reverting to a previous version. As you may know, one of Atlas's core features is its support for declarative migrations - the ability to automatically plan schema changes from the current state of a database to some desired state (similar to Terraform, but for databases).

Suppose we want to revert the database to a known version. This can happen in cases where the database was somehow manually modified in a way that's preventing us from making progress, or if we simply want to revert to a previous version. Using Atlas's schema apply, we can automatically plan this change:

atlas schema apply \
--url "mysql://root:pass@localhost:3306/example" \
--to "file://migrations?version=targetVersion" \
--dev-url "docker://mysql/8/example" \
--exclude "atlas_schema_revisions"

Atlas plans the change for us:

-- Planned Changes:
-- Drop "biographies" table
DROP TABLE `biographies`;
-- Modify "users" table
ALTER TABLE `users` MODIFY COLUMN `bio` varchar(100) NULL;
โœ” Apply

Let's unpack this command:

  • url - is the URL of the target database that we want to modify.
  • to - describes the desired state, in this case the migration directory at file://migrations at version targetVersion - omitting this query parameter will set the desired state at the most recent revision.
  • dev-url - Atlas requires a connection to an empty dev-database, which it uses to normalize the desired schema. Using the docker:// URL scheme tells Atlas to spin up and use a fresh Docker container for this purpose.
  • exclude - tells Atlas to ignore atlas_schema_revision which is a metadata table maintained by Atlas and not described in the migration directory. Adding this argument prevents Atlas from accidentally producing a plan that drops this table.

Wrapping upโ€‹

This blog post discussed the common causes of database schema migration failures and demonstrated how Atlas is equipped to handle them. Atlas offers features such as status observability, statement-level granularity, and declarative roll-forward capabilities, which enable development teams to efficiently recover from migration failures, reduce MTTR, and minimize disruption to their services.

How can we make Atlas better?โ€‹

We would love to hear from you on our Discord server โค๏ธ.